driving license category worldwide

A domestic driving permit from Spain, in the format of the standardised European Driving Licence style

driver’s license is an official document, often plastic and the size of a credit card, permitting a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles, such as a motorcyclecartruck, or bus on a public road.

Most American jurisdictions issue a driver license but some a driver’s license, which is conversationally American EnglishCanadian English uses both driver’s licence as well as driver licence (Maritimes), the Australian and New Zealand English equivalent is driver licence, in British English and in many Commonwealth of Nations countries and Ireland it is driving licence. In most international agreements the wording driving permit is used, for instance in the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. In this article, the American terminology and spelling is used generally but in country specific sections, the local spelling variant is used.

The laws relating to the licensing of drivers vary between jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions, a permit is issued after the recipient has passed a driving test, while in others, a person acquires their permit before beginning to drive. Different categories of permit often exist for different types of motor vehicles, particularly large trucks and passenger vehicles. The difficulty of the driving test varies considerably between jurisdictions, as do factors such as age and the required level of competence and practice.

History[edit]

The world’s first permit to drive a motor vehicle, issued to Karl Benz upon his request

Karl Benz, inventor of the modern car, received a written “Genehmigung” (permit) from the Grand Ducal authorities to operate his car on public roads in 1888 after residents complained about the noise and smell of his Motorwagen.[1] Up until the start of the 20th century, European authorities issued similar permits to drive motor vehicles ad hoc, if at all.[1]

Mandatory licensing for drivers came into force on 1 January 1904[2] after the Motor Car Act 1903 received royal assent in the United Kingdom. Every car owner had to register their vehicle with their local government authority and be able to prove registration of their vehicle on request. The minimum qualifying age was set at 17. The “driving licence” gave its holder ‘freedom of the road’ with a maximum 20 mph (32 km/h) speed limit.[3] Compulsory testing was introduced in 1934, with the passing of the Road Traffic Act.[4]

Prussia, then a state within the German Empire, introduced compulsory licensing on 29 September 1903. A test on mechanical aptitude had to be passed and the Dampfkesselüberwachungsverein (“steam boiler supervision association”) was charged with conducting these tests.[1] In 1910, the German imperial government mandated the licensing of drivers on a national scale, establishing a system of tests and driver’s education requirements that was adopted in other countries.[1]

In 1909, the Convention with Respect to the International Circulation of Motor Vehicles[5] recognized the need for qualifications, examination, and authorization for international driving.

In 1929, the notion of an “International Driving Permit” was first mooted in an international convention.[6]

Screenshot of Annex 6 of the “Convention on Road Traffic” volume 125 of Geneva convention 1949

In 1949, the United Nations hosted the Geneva convention on Road Traffic that standardised rules on roads, occupants, rules, signs, driver’s permits and such. It specified that national “driving permits” should be pink and that an “International Driving Permit” for driving in a number of countries should have “grey” covers with white pages and that “The entire last page shall be drawn up in French”.[7]

In 1968, the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, ratified in 1977 and further updated in 2011, further modernised these agreements.[8]

Fahrerlaubnisklassen.png

Its main regulations about drivers permits are in Annex 6 (Domestic Driving Permit) and Annex 7 (International Driving Permit). The currently active version of those is in force in each contracting party no later than “29 March 2011” (Article 43).

Article 41 of the convention describes key requirements:

  • every driver of a motor vehicle must hold appropriate documentation;
  • “driving permits” can be issued only after passing theoretical and practical exams, which are regulated by each country or jurisdiction;
  • Contracting parties shall recognize as valid for driving in their territories:
    • “domestic driving permits” conforming to the provisions of Annex 6 to the convention;
    • an “International Driving Permit” conforming to the provisions of Annex 7 to the convention, on condition that it is presented with the corresponding domestic driving permit;
  • “domestic driving permits” issued by a contracting party shall be recognised in the territory of another contracting party until this territory becomes the place of normal residence of their holder;
  • all of the above does not apply to learner-driver permits;
  • the period of validity of an international driving permit shall be either no more than three years after the date of issue or until the date of expiry of the domestic driving permit, whichever is earlier;
  • Contracting parties may refuse to recognize the validity of driving permits for persons under eighteen or, for categories C, D, CE and DE, under twenty-one;
  • an international driving permit shall only be issued by the contracting party in whose territory the holder has their normal residence and that issued the domestic driving permit or that recognized the driving permit issued by another contracting party; it shall not be valid for use in that territory.

Other countries in Europe also introduced driving tests during the twentieth century, the last of them being Belgium where, until as recently as 1977, it was possible to purchase and hold a permit without having to undergo a driving test.[9]

As traffic-related fatalities soared in North America, public outcry provoked legislators to begin studying the French and German statutes as models.[10] On 1 August 1910, North America’s first licensing law for motor vehicles went into effect in the U.S. state of New York, though it initially applied only to professional chauffeurs.[11] In July 1913, the state of New Jersey became the first to require all drivers to pass a mandatory examination before receiving a license.[12]

A driver’s license for the moon presented to then NASA Administrator James E. Webb

Use for identification purposes 

Many countries, including Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, have no national identification cards. Since many people do have driving permits, they are often accepted as proof of identity. In some territories, non-drivers can apply for identification-only cards with a similar format to a driving permit. Most identity cards and driving permits are credit card size—the “ID-1” size and shape defined in ISO/IEC 7810.

Asia 

A Hong Kong Driving Licence carries the same number as the holder’s ID card, but has no photograph. As such, it is not a legal document for proof of age for purchase of alcohol. Upon control, both must be presented. Plans to make the newly phased in Smart ID contain driver licensing information have been shelved.

Similarly, the Saudi Arabian government require all drivers to carry an ID card in addition to a driving permit and present them whenever requested. In Saudi Arabia using a permit instead is only permitted if the request is made for on-site inspection/identification purposes, especially at checkpoints. Expatriates may be requested to present their visas as well.

In Japan, South Korea, and Singapore, driving permit cards are widely used as identification.[13]

Europe 

Many European countries require drivers to produce their permit on demand when driving. Some European countries require adults to carry proof of identity at all times, but a driving permit is not valid for identification in every European country.[14]

In the United Kingdom most drivers are not required to carry their “Driving Licence”. A driver may be required by a constable or vehicle examiner to produce this, but may provide it at a specified police station within seven days;[15] the police issue a form for this purpose.[16]

In Denmark, Finland, Norway, Spain and Sweden, the driving permit number is listed along with the bearer’s national identification number. Banks and public authorities use the same number for customer databases, making the permit fully useful for identification purposes.

North America[edit]

In Canada and the United States, driving permits are issued by the provinces (or territories) and states, respectively and do not look the same nationwide. They are also used as a de facto or government-issued identification document for the holder.

Most government issuers of driving permits also provide a government-issued identification card with similar attributes to those residents within their jurisdictions who do not have or maintain a valid driving permit, making it easier for them to do things such as open a bank account and perform any other activities that require official identification. Identification cards serve as government-issued photo ID but do not enable a person to operate a motor vehicle, a fact typically noted on the ID via the phrase ‘Not a driver’s licence’ or similar wording. This type of photo ID is referred to as a Photo Card in some jurisdictions (for example, the Ontario Photo Card). Government-issued ID cards are also issued to out-of-state residents e.g. college students enrolled in an institution of higher education outside their state of residence e.g. a domiciled Texas resident enrolled at UCLA where the individual retains their Texas Driver License and holds a California state issued ID card (as mentioned above e.g. bank account and financial affairs); also applicable to those who own business assets and not domiciled in a state or city as a resident e.g. one domiciled in Los Angeles and owning either a business or real estate property in Florida). In the U.S. no individual is permitted to hold multiple valid driver licenses simultaneously.

Ontario now plans to follow Quebec in phasing out their “enhanced driver’s licence” so that the only remaining issuing authorities will become British Columbia and Manitoba. These driving permits enhanced with an RFID chip are accepted in lieu of passports for border crossings between the Canada and the US.[17]

In Canada, the acronym DLN (frequently found on work applications) refers to “Driver’s Licence Number” and, in the U.S., “Drivers License Number.

South America[edit]

In Venezuela and the Dominican Republic, the driving permit number is the same as the citizen’s ID number.

Permits for different categories of vehicles[edit]

In a number of countries (including the United States, New Zealand, Australia, UK, Ireland and sometimes Canada as well) people who drive commercially are required to have special permits. The cost of taking the series of tests and examinations to obtain these permits usually means that an employer would subsidize his or her drivers.

Egyptian citizens are entitled to a driver’s licence once they have reached the age of 18. To obtain their licences, applicants must pass a driving test as well as several computer tests.

In order to pass, all a person had to do was drive six metres forward and then reverse six metres. However, the test was updated to make it more difficult; now the applicant has to answer 8 out of 10 correct answers in a computer test, then pass a forward and reverse S-track test in addition to an assessment of parking skills.

Driver’s licensing in Ghana is conducted by the nation’s Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority. The legal driving age is 18.

The legal driving age is 18 years old. The permit must include:

  • Id number
  • Name
  • Date of issue
  • Class of vehicle

Morocco 

The legal driving age of Moroccan citizens is 18.[citation needed]

Nigeria 

In Nigeria, the minimum age to qualify for a drivers licence is 18. The applicant would first attend training at an accredited driving school. Then, the driving school will present the applicant to a Vehicle Inspection Officer (VIO) for a driving test. Upon passing the driving test the applicant would obtain a certificate of proficiency from the VIO. The applicant then completes a drivers license application form at the Drivers Licence Centre (DLC) or downloads the form online. Afterwards he pays a licence fee online or at the Bank and presents his application form to the Board of Internal Revenue (BIR) Officer and VIO at the DLC for endorsement. After all these procedures he goes to the Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) Officer at the DLC for biometric data capture. He is given a temporary drivers licence which is valid for 60 days. He picks up the original drivers licence at the BIR Office after 60 days.

South Africa 

The minimum driving age in South Africa is 17, when you may drive with an adult who holds a valid driving licence, after passing your learner’s theory test. At 18, a driving licence can be obtained after passing the road test. Small motorcycles may be driven from the age of 16. To obtain a permit, applicants must pass a written or computer-based test to obtain a learner’s licence, and then pass a road test to obtain the driving license. Categories for permits include CODE B (normal vehicles), CODE C1 (LDV), CODE EC (heavy trucks), CODE A (motorcycle). The learners licence theory test will contain three sets of questions with multiple answer options; you will have to select the correct answer. Some Driving Licence Test Centres use computers for the test, whereas others require you to complete the test using a test paper and pen.[citation needed]

 a 

Driving licences are issued by the Tanzania Revenue Authority. The legal driving age for motorcycles is 16 and for other motor vehicles is 18.[18]

Z  

Zimbabwean drivers licenses are issued by the Vehicle Inspection Department (VID) which is an arm of the government under the Ministry of Transport & Infrastructural Development.[19] Drivers can be licensed for class 4 vehicles at the age of sixteen and eighteen for class 2 vehicles. Public transport vehicles are in class 1 and the minimum age is twenty five. A theory based learners license which has 25 questions is the first step. The questions for this test include diagrams, road rules and road signs and has to be answered in under eight minutes. After passing the test, the candidate gets a provisional learners license which enables the candidate to drive under supervision from a driving instructor or anyone with a full driving license.

Vehicle Class[20] Type of Vehicles Description Minimum Age Minimum Test score
Class 1 Buses Public service vehicles (for passenger transport) 25 100%
Class 2 Trucks Heavy vehicles vehicles with net mass above 2300 kg 18 100%
Class 3 Motorcycles Motorcycles 16 88%
Class 4 Cars Light motor vehicles under 2300 kg net mass 16 88%
Class 5 Tractors/Earth moving equipment Farm and construction vehicles 16 88%

[21]

After the theory test learner drivers have to start practical driving lessons covering key driving skills. To qualify for a driving test one must have completed thirty lessons.

Skills tested in the driving test include:

Skill Description Skill being tested
Hill Start starting vehicle on an upward incline and proceeding without rolling backwards clutch control
Three Point Turn turning a vehicle around to face the opposite direction in a limited space use of gears, mirrors and vehicle control
Parallel Parking parking a vehicle parallel to the road in line with other parked vehicles maneuvering around other vehicles, reversing and clutch control
Reversing commonly known as drums because candidates have to successfully reverse through a set of drums without bumping into any – an immediate fail vehicle control in reverse and clutch control
City Driving driving through urban roads, route planning and avoidance of busy roads and intersections observing road rules and signs attention to hazards. Special attention to pedestrians and cyclists. Paying attention to actions of other road users

Asia[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]

Hong Kong[edit]

Hong Kong has a minimum age of 16 for mopeds under 50 cc (3.1 cu in) and 18 for motorcycles producing more than 50 cc (3.1 cu in). Minimum age for holding a driving permit is 18 for cars and 21 for commercial vehicles[citation needed].

Drivers are legally obliged to carry a valid driving licence whilst driving and this must be produced if required to do so by a police officer.[citation needed]

People older than 70 have to undergo strict medical tests in order to obtain a permit that has limited validity and requires renewal after a certain period.

India[edit]

The minimum driving age in India is 16 for mopeds under 50 cc (3.1 cu in), and 18 for cars and motorcycles of more than 50 cc (3.1 cu in).[22] The Regional Transport Office (RTO/RTA) issue their own driving licences in various states. Drivers are legally obliged to carry a valid driving permit in India whilst driving, and it must be produced if required to do so by a police officer.

In India, people aged 50 or more, have to undergo strict medical tests in order to obtain a permit that has limited validity and requires renewal every five years. A Commercial Driving Licence is valid for 3 years and then requires to be renewed.

Indonesia[edit]

Front side of the Indonesian Driving License card “A” class for driving normal 4 wheel car/jeep vehicle

Rear/back side of the Indonesian driving license card

In Indonesia, to drive a motor vehicle, one must own a legal Indonesian Driving License (IndonesianSurat Izin Mengemudi or SIM). It is a card which legally permits one to drive a motor vehicle. In Indonesia, there are classes for each driving license for which is allowed to drive a type of motor vehicle:

  • A – to drive private passenger or cargo vehicle with weight allowed not exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lb)
  • A Public (A UMUM) – to drive commercial vehicles and goods carrier to the amount of weight that is allowed does not exceed 3,500 kg (7,700 lb)
  • B1 – to drive private passenger or cargo vehicle with weight allowed exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lb)
  • B1 Public (B1 UMUM) – to drive passenger vehicles and general freight allowed amount of weight over 3,500 kg (7,700 lb)
  • B2 – to drive heavy equipment vehicles, towing vehicles, or motor vehicles with attractive patch or trailer train individuals with severe or patches are allowed to train more than 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) trailer/s
  • B2 Public (B2 UMUM) – to drive commercial vehicles for towing or pull cart trailer with heavy patch that are allowed to train more than 1,000 kg trailer
  • C – to drive motorcycles (two-wheeled motor vehicle)
  • D – special vehicle for disabled person

The classes above are also allowed by the age of the driver according to the class of the driving license. The ages are accordingly issued to the different classes of the driver’s choice:

  • 17 years old for issue of Driving License class: A, C, and D
  • 20 years old for issue of Driving License class: B1
  • 21 years old for issue of Driving License class: B2

Israel 

Japan 

Japanese driver’s licenses bear one of the following 3 colors on the expiration date.

Green 
New Drivers (first license in Japan) is valid for 2 to 3 years. Drivers with under one year of driving experience are required to display a “Shoshinsha mark” (Young Leaf Mark) on their vehicle. This holds true if the driver acquires a license for a different class of vehicle, regardless of the length of driving experience on their previous license. However, such a mark does not indicate necessarily the color on the driver’s license. A driver with a young leaf mark on their car could very well be a gold driver. This is because the gold status does not disappear with a change in vehicle class.
Blue 
Drivers who have fewer than 5 years of clean driving history or who do not have a clean driving record but more than 5 years of driving history. Valid for 3 to 5 years depending on age, violation history, etc.
Gold 
In addition to the regular license, the Gold Driver’s License (ゴールド免許Gōrudo Menkyo), or Superior Drivers License (優良運転者免許証Yūryō Untensha Menkyoshō), is a special designation of license given to “superior drivers” (優良運転者) in Japan. Holders of such licenses can be identified by the gold band printed over the expiration date of their driver’s license.

Superior Driver’s License, (Gold License)

The Gold License is granted to any driver who, at the point of license renewal, has at least five years of clean driving history (no driving infractions).[23][24] According to implications in the Road Traffic Laws Reforms that took place on May 10, 1995, all such licenses are marked with a gold band over the license’s expiration date as well as the word 優良 (excellent) printed in black, below.

Those who hold a gold license have the added benefit of qualifying for the Superior Drivers Course at the time of renewal, a significantly shorter and less-expensive renewal process. In some cases, they can bypass the main license center and have their license renewed at a separate Superior Drivers License Renewal Center.[25]

Moreover, because such license holders are proven to have been free of accidents and moving violations for at least five years, they are deemed low-risk and qualify for optional car insurance discounts. To qualify, drivers must be accident and violation-free for 5 years and 41 days prior to their birthday on their license’s expiration. The period in which the license holder’s driving history is reviewed begins on the 40th day prior to their birthday of that year. Should the license holder be deemed to qualify, they will receive a decision in the mail with the word 優良 printed on it.

Even the so-called “Paper Drivers” who hold licenses but never drive, who technically are without violation or accident, can lose their eligibility to obtain a gold license for several reasons including if their car is used by a drunk driver or to support drunk driving in any way.

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

The front side of a typical Malaysian driving licence.

The minimum age for obtaining a driving licence varies between 16 and 21, although there is a concern about teenage driving safety.[26]

As of November 2011, drivers can renew their licence on their birthday, rather than expiry date.[27]

Pakistan 

The minimum age for eligibility for a learner’s permit is 18 years. Drivers’ information is recorded against the Computerized National ID Card number which is issued at the age of 18. The Licence Issuing Authorities vary in each district and work under the relevant District Police.

A new credit card format driving licence has been introduced. The licence bears the digital photo, signature and blood group information of the card holder. A record of traffic violations is stored automatically in the database. To obtain a driving licence one must register for a learner’s permit at any of the local District Police’s designated licence offices and then, after 42 days, one can apply for test for a regular full licence.

The test phase consists of a theory based test followed by a short practical test. Only those who pass the theory test are allowed to take the practical test. The whole test stage is a single day process where both tests are to be taken the same day. The driving licence currently issued holds basic information of the driver including name, Father’s name, date of birth, address, authorized vehicle types, emergency contact, blood group, fingerprint impression, driver photo. The licence also has a magnetic strip though its viability is yet to be made public.

Singapore 

Driving licences in Singapore are issued by the traffic police. The minimum age to obtain a provisional driving licence (PDL), which allows the holder to practice driving while under the supervision of an authorised driving instructor, is 18. A provisional driving licence is obtained once the individual has passed the basic theory test. PDL holders are then required to sit for and pass the final theory test before they are allowed to sit for the practical driving test. Once they have passed the practical driving test, they are issued with a driving licence which allows for driving without supervision, though new drivers are required to display probationary plates when driving for the first year after their licence is issued.

South Korea[edit]

In South Korea, one must be holding a driving license called “운전면허증” or an international driving license. The International driving license is valid for 1 years starting from the date of entry. If one is going to stay in South Korea longer than a year, it is necessary to change the international license to a local license by visiting the police office or driving license testing center.

For South Korean driving license, there are classes for each driving license for which is allowed to drive a type of motor vehicle:

  • Type 1 (1종) – Commercial Vehicles
    • Large (대형) – A license which allows one to drive every vehicle except trailers and wreckers. It allows one to drive cargo truck, passenger bus, construction equipment for commercial purposes.
    • Normal (보통) – Allows one to drive a vehicle with less than 15 seats, an emergency motor vehicle with less than 12 seats, a cargo truck with a load limit of 12 tonnes, a construction equipment which weighs less than 3 tonnes (doesn’t include trailers and wreckers), a special motor vehicle which weighs less than 10 tonnes (doesn’t include trailers and wreckers).
    • Small (소형) (No longer valid) – Allows one to drive a vehicle with three wheels and a motorcycle.
  • Type 2 (2종) – Non-Commercial Vehicles
    • Normal (보통) – Allows one to drive a vehicle with less than 10 seats, a cargo truck with a load limit of 4 tonnes, a special motor vehicle which weighs less than 3.5 tonnes (doesn’t include trailers and wreckers).
    • Small (소형) – Allows one to drive a motorcycle.
  • Practice License
    • Type 1 (1종) – Allows one to drive a vehicle with less than 15 seats, a cargo truck with a load limit of 12 tonnes, when the driver is driving with somebody with a licens which isn’t a practice license.
    • Type 2 (2종) – Allows one to drive a vehicle with less than 10 seats, a cargo truck with a load limit of 4 tonnes, when the driver is driving with somebody with a license which isn’t a practice license.

Besides the type of the license, the license may have a special condition. Depending on the special condition given, the driver must satisfy the condition below to be able to drive. Driving a vehicle without satisfying the given condition is considered as unlicensed driving.

  • A – Automatic Transmission Only
  • B – Drive with prosthetic hand or arm
  • C – Drive with prosthetic leg
  • D – Wear hearing aid when driving
  • E – Drive with Hearing-Impaired Sign + Convex Mirror
  • I – Drive a car with a gas pedal located in the left.

Sri Lanka 

New E-Smart Card driving licenses are available in Sri Lanka. These cards are intended for the use in the proposed “Point System”.

In Sri Lanka, a driving license is the official document which authorizes its holder to operate various types of motor vehicles on public roads. They are administered by the Department of Motor Traffic (DMT). The minimum age is 18 years for all vehicle types.

Thailand 

Driving in Thailand without a driver’s license is prohibited and is punishable by fines. Moreover, in case of a road accident, a driver without a license can be considered as the guilty party. Also, an unlicensed driver who was in road accident will be refused medical insurance payment

It isn’t difficult to receive a driver’s license in Thailand. In fact, it is accessible to foreigners too. When the package of documents will be collected person need to appeal to the Transport Authority and sign up for the exam. Waiting time usually is near one month.

The exam includes theoretical and practical parts held on the same day. Reaction’s tests are conducted before the exam. The complainant gets a temporary ID valid for one year. It may be extended for five years, but only if the complainant lives in Thailand on non-immigrant visa. An International driver’s license is recognized in Thailand. With its help it is easy to get a license without doing the exams.

There are different plastic cards for motorcycles and vehicles. Therefore, documents and exams need to be done twice.[28]

Privileges of driver’s license holder:

  • A driver’s license can be used as ID.
  • Discounts (up to five-fold discounts) for sightseeing, museums, etc. can be obtained by the license.
  • Thai (5-years extended) license is valid in the following countries: Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines.
  • International driver’s license (5-years validity) can be obtained on the basis of 5-years Thai license.

Vietnam[edit]

In Vietnam, to drive a vehicle, one must own a legal Vietnamese Driving License which is called “bằng lái”. It is a card which legally permits one to drive a motor vehicle. In Vietnam, there are classes for each driving license for which is allowed to drive a type of motor vehicle:

  • A – to drive private passenger or cargo vehicle with weight allowed exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lb).
  • B1 – to drive private passenger or cargo vehicle with weight allowed not exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). B1 is issued to drivers who are younger than 21 years old. B1 license is valid for 5 years.
  • B2 – to drive private passenger or cargo vehicle with weight allowed not exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). B2 license is identical to B1 license but issued for drivers who are 21 years old or older. B2 license is valid for 10 years.
  • C – to drive motorcycles (two-wheeled motor vehicle)
  • D – special vehicle for disabled person

The classes above are also allowed by the age of the driver according to the class of the driving license. The ages are accordingly issued to the different classes of the driver’s choice:

  • 17 years old for issue of Driving License class: A, C
  • 20 years old or younger for issue of Driving License class : B1
  • 21 years old for issue of Driving License class: B2

European Economic Area 

Driving permits within the European Union are subdivided into different categories.

The European Union has adopted a common format for driving permits within all 31 European Economic Area member states (EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway), and a common set of driving permit categories. There are other national categories for tractors, large motorcycles, motorised wheel boats, motor tricycles (modern voiturettes, Category B1 or S), and military categories such as for driving tanks. National categories mean they are not harmonised and only valid within the issuing country.

The European driving licence was introduced to replace the 110 different plastic and paper driving permits. The common format with the same information in the same place on all permits allows documents to be understood, even if they are in a different language.

The system for handling the penalty points remains different in each country, for the existence of points, initial number of points, revolving, and number of points removed (or added) for each penalty.

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Croatia 

Cyprus 

Denmark 

Finland 

France

Germany

Greece 

Iceland 

The minimum age for getting a driver’s license in Iceland is 17 for a B class license, a B class license will qualify a person to drive low powered motorcycles (50 cc (3.1 cu in) two stroke or equivalent, for more powerful bikes one will have to obtain an A class license), Tractors, ATVs and automobiles that do not exceed a GVWR of 3,500 kg (7,700 lb) or 8 passengers.

The minimum age in Iceland to get a C1 class (vehicles up to 7,500 kg (16,500 lb) GVWR) is 18, for a C class (vehicles exceeding 7,500 kg) one will have to have obtained a 12-point license (obtainable without getting a ticket for a whole year) and have reached the age of 21 years.

The minimum age in Iceland for a D1 class license is 21 years old and D class (and DE class) license is 23 years old, the same rules apply as with a C/CE class license.

Ireland

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